Imaging Technology Courses

  • 3 days imaging technology course
  • Industrial, medical, space, photography, automotive, UAV, drones - photo by A. Darmont
  • 3D, high speed, CCD, CMOS, mobile, IR, image processing, photography - photo by B. Dupont
  • From light sources to usable images

The course is split into several sub-courses that all together form the full 4 days contents.

Custom courses can be built by selecting full sub-courses or parts of courses.

The list below may not be complete as content is regularly added. Some additional slides include exercises.

Part 1 – course introduction

  • Agenda
  • Who am i?
  • Aphesa
  • Reference books
  • Contents of the USB drive
  • Good, Fast, Cheap
  • The hammer tapping price

Part 2 – introduction to imaging

Sample slides

  • what is imaging
  • light spectrum
  • sun light
  • sensor materials
  • light sources
  • color temperature
  • filters
  • principle of imaging
  • surfaces
  • ambiguity
  • waved or photons
  • electromagnetic spectrum and imaging bands
  • quantum effect: shot noise
  • flashes
  • inverse square law
  • industrial lighting example
  • bright field / dark field
  • DOAL
  • dome
  • line light
  • polarization
  • introduction to radiometry and photometry
  • basics of optics (lenses, thin lenses, inversion, focal length, field of view, telecentric. F/#, depth of focus, depth of field, aperture, optical zoom, macro, focus distance, hyperfocal distance, relative illumination, aberrations, diffraction limit, stray light)
  • image sensors types, history and markets
  • CCD and comparison with CMOS
  • pinout of image sensors
  • microlenses
  • light pipe
  • line scan
  • Contact image sensor
  • color (bayer, filtering principle, metamerism, moiré)
  • NIR enhancement
  • multispectral and hyperspectral imaging
  • 3CCD
  • line scan color
  • TDI
  • ISO setting
  • progressive vs interlaced
  • industrial camera block diagram
  • interface standards (CameraLink, GigE-Vision, USB3-Vision, CoaXpress, CLHS, IIDC, Gen<i>cam)
  • lens mount standards
  • industrial camera types vs price
  • industrial camera price vs DSLR
  • corrections and calibrations (principle, distorsion, intrinsic/internal, external, defect pixels, noise)
  • reconstructing color
  • calibrating color, color spaces, gamut
  • white balance
  • blending
  • do we need color?
  • image improvements, image compression, gamma
  • digital zoom
  • compensation for ageing
  • automatic exposure control
  • pipeline simulation
  • photography (types of digital cameras, resolution needs, parameters, autofocus, shift and shoot, bokeh, exposure time, aperture priority, speed priority, manual mode, auto mode, ISO, noise, discussion of example pictures)

Part 3 – in-depth CMOS image sensors course

Sample slides

  • imaging process
  • quantum shot noise
  • semiconductors, doping, diode, diode biasing
  • photon-cristal interaction
  • quantum efficiency
  • pinned photodiode
  • penetration depth
  • spectral response
  • UV and scintillators
  • other imaging
  • spectral response shape and oscillations
  • SPAD
  • transistor
  • pixel, pixel design, pixel layout, design sharing
  • pixel size trends
  • pixel array
  • front side vs back side illumination
  • PRNU, DSNU
  • readout circuits
  • low light imaging, noise, sensitivity, kTC, CDS, Johnson, quantization
  • saturation, full well size
  • dynamic range, SNR, SNR plot
  • response curve
  • 3T rolling shutter pixel
  • rolling shutter artifact
  • 5T global shutter pixel
  • 4T global shutter pixel
  • Yang&Gamal method
  • Temperature, dark current, dark current doubling temperature, dark current compensation
  • Shutter efficiency
  • blooming, smear, anti-blooming
  • black sun
  • hard vs soft reset
  • resolution reduction, binning
  • radiation damage, radiation hard
  • market bubble cycles
  • curved silicon
  • flexible sensors
  • graphene and quantum dots

Part 4 – CMOS image sensor fabrication

Sample slides

  • device structure
  • wafer material, wafer preparation
  • wafer processing, masks, stitching, MPW, MLM, lithography, dicing
  • Ion implantation
  • Dopant diffusion
  • Oxidation
  • Planarization
  • A 0.25um CMOS process in details
  • packaging and packages
  • AR coating
  • EMC, ESD, environmental
  • stacking
  • Process capability, CpK, PpK

Part 5 – High Dynamic Range Imaging

Sample slides

  • Applications that require HDR
  • Example of the HDR scene and principle
  • HDR photography
  • Vocabulary
  • Low light HDR limit
  • Response curves
  • Dynamic Range Gaps (SNR hole) artifact
  • Dynamic range
  • Image information transfer
  • List of hardware methods
  • Multi-linear (multiple slopes, piecewise linear) and skimmed pixels
  • Multiple sampling
  • Multiple acquisition nodes
  • Logarthmic
  • Time to saturation
  • Multiple regions of exposure and local pixel control
  • Color issues
  • Software HDR method, Debevec's algorithm, other algorithms noise removal, ghosts, misalignments, simulated HDR

Part 6 – 3D imaging

Sample slides

  • 2.5D vs 3D
  • passive vs active
  • acquisition time
  • calibration
  • Structured light, triangulation
  • spatial-temporal coded light
  • stereovision
  • Time of Flight
  • Realsense and Kineqt
  • Comparison of methods
  • Tomography

Part 7 – EMVA1288 standard and other characterization methods

Sample slides

  • introduction, why we need it, current market use, working groups, future
  • assumptions and models
  • linear signal model
  • photon transfer method
  • SNR
  • sensitivity
  • dynamic range
  • dark current
  • linearity
  • non-uniformities, PRNU, DSNU
  • defect pixels
  • hardware required
  • measurement flow
  • simulation of a sensor and correponding results
  • additional modules
  • selecting a sensor or a camera
  • sensor and camera defects found using the standard
  • conclusions
  • aphesa software
  • example real measurement
  • RTS
  • defect pixels clusters
  • ISO methods
  • MTF

Part 8 – High speed and real time imaging

  • What is high speed?
  • Real time, latency
  • Hard vs soft real time
  • Is high speed real time?
  • High speed applications and cameras
  • High speed not real time
  • Not high speed real time
  • High speed real time
  • Line scan
  • Operating systems
  • Software language
  • Will a PC work?
  • Core count
  • Interrupt strategy
  • Programming techniques, multithreading, GPU, MMX/SSE
  • Resynchronization

Part 9 – Mobile imaging

  • what means mobile
  • architecture of a mobile camera, architecture of the snapdragon processor, bill-of-material with prices for some famous phones and cameras, imaging pipeline
  • power consumption
  • MIPI interface
  • face detector
  • smile detector
  • red eye effect removal
  • the race for megapixels
  • MTF

Part 10 – Image processing

Sample slides

  • use of image processing
  • block diagram
  • image representation
  • quantization
  • neighbors and connectivity
  • discrete geometry
  • matrix representation
  • 2D FFT
  • Fourier filtering
  • Gabor filtering
  • unary operators
  • coordinate systems and remapping, polar coordinates
  • single pixel operations
  • neighborhood operations
  • geometric transforms
  • interpolation
  • camera calibration
  • color reconstruction and calibration
  • averaging in space and time
  • feature extraction, edges, motion, texture, Hough
  • analysis, segmentation, threshold
  • morphology
  • shape, central moments, fourier descriptors, shape measurements, modeling
  • classification, near sets
  • OCR
  • template matching (CTM, GTM)
  • neural networks
  • multiscale processing
  • ROI, bounding box, tracking
  • compression
  • enhancement, sharpening
  • super-resolution
  • photo editing, photo manipulation
  • vision guided robotics
  • camera requirements

Part 11 – infrared imaging

  • light bands and materials
  • types of detectors
  • microbolometers
  • silicon and non-silicon
  • hybrid
  • cooled vs uncooled
  • seeing temperature, emissivity
  • ITAR

Part 12 – human vision

Part 13 – physics and maths

  • quantum mechanics
  • statistical mechanics
  • solid state physics
  • semiconductor physics
  • Fourier transform
  • stochastic processes
  • statistical distributions
  • Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem
  • Shannon channel theory